The Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is defined as a collection of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action. Diabetes was first recognized as an ailment connected with “sweet urine,” and extreme muscle loss in the olden world. High levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, therefore the term sweet urine.

Usually, blood glucose levels are strongly controlled by insulin, a hormone formed by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates, insulin is released from the pancreas to regularize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of inadequate production of or lack of reaction to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is an unrelieved medical situation, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.

Type 1 Diabetes symptoms
Symptoms of diabetes can be associated in type one diabetes, which is usually diagnosed in children and teens, and type two diabetes, which most frequently occurs in adults. The symptoms of any of the two types are connected to high blood and urine glucose levels and include:
• frequent infections,
• nausea,
• vomiting, and
• Blurred vision.
• hunger,
• dehydration,
• weight loss or gain,
• fatigue,
• dry mouth,
• slow-healing wounds, cuts, or sores,
• itching skin, and
• increased susceptibility to infections

Type 2 Diabetes symptoms
• increased urine output
• excessive thirst
• weight loss
• hunger
• fatigue
• skin problems
• slow healing wounds
• yeast infections and
• Tingling or numbness in the feet or toes

Diabetes symptoms in women
The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are related to elevated blood sugar levels, and loss of glucose in the urine. High amounts of glucose in the urine can cause increased urine output (frequent urination) and lead to dehydration.
The dehydration also causes increased thirst and water consumption.
A relative or absolute insulin deficiency eventually leads to weight loss.
The weight loss of diabetes occurs despite an increase in appetite.

Diabetes symptoms in men
Some untreated diabetes patients also complain of fatigue.
Nausea and vomiting can also occur in patients with untreated diabetes.
Frequent infections (such as infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas) are more likely to occur in people with untreated or poorly-controlled diabetes.
Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can lead to blurred vision.
Extremely elevated glucose levels can lead to lethargy and coma

What causes diabetes?
Insufficient production of insulin (either completely or relative to the body’s needs), production of faulty insulin (which is unusual), or the incapability of cells to use insulin correctly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia and diabetes.

This latter state affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. This is the chief dilemma in type 2 diabetes.

The complete lack of insulin, usually secondary to a critical procedure touching the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, is the main chaos in type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a stable reject of beta cells that adds to the procedure of elevated blood sugars. Basically, if somebody is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some quantity, boost production of insulin and conquer the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as dynamically, hyperglycemia develops.

Types of diabetes
There are two major types of diabetes, called type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes was also previously called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune assault by the body itself, and is rendered powerless of building insulin. Unusual antibodies have been found in the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes. Antibodies are proteins in the blood that are component of the body’s immune structure. The patient with type 1 diabetes must rely on insulin medication for endurance.

Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes

Diabetes treatment
All types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime; however, thousands of people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication.

Your Guide for an Aerobics Workout

Aerobics is an intense workout which gives you massive results, but only if you do it patiently and regularly. It’s really important to dedicate your time and energy positively to attain the desired results when you start with such a workout regime. So, before starting with it, you need to remember a few important things which will help you during these sessions.

1. Precautionary measures

If you have any chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or arthritis) or any other risk factors (such as smoking or being overweight), and have not discussed exercising with your doctor, you should do so before starting out on your aerobics workout regime. Exercise is often an important part of the treatment for such conditions, but you may have some limitations or special needs that your doctor can inform you about. You may get hurt while doing some difficult steps during your aerobics workout, so it is necessary to discuss it with your doctor.

2. Must-Haves

Wear shoes that fit well and are capable of providing the right kind of support for your aerobics activity and comfort for your body type. Wear appropriate clothes for exercising. Make sure you always carry a Water bottle and Towel during your workout. Fabrics that absorb sweat are recommended. Women should wear supportive sports bras. But no one should EVER wear rubber or plastic suits or belts-these prevent your body from dissipating heat properly and can lead to serious health risks from overheating and dehydration.

3. Know your limits

It is inevitable if you experience a little amount of discomfort during your aerobics exercise – this way you push your body’s limits.. Expecting to have some sore muscles after a vigorous workout is expected and you will feel the cramps for a day or two. But at the same time, you need to take care that if you are experiencing problems like pain or pressure in your chest or neck, shoulder or arm, or notice that your heart starts racing or beating irregularly during your aerobic exercise, it is best to immediately slow down. Allow your heart rate to drop gradually before stopping completely, since an abrupt stop can cause problems with blood circulation and sometimes, fainting. However, in cases of severe and sudden pain, stop immediately and seek help.

4. Enjoy your workout

After taking care of all the essentials and becoming aware of your body’s limits, enjoy your workout to the fullest. Aerobics is a workout which is best enjoyed with great music. The workout always starts with simple stretching techniques; therefore, it is easy for anyone in the early stages to catch up with the steps. Initially, the steps are done with a set count, so it is effectively done if you follow your trainer’s lead.

Home Fitness DVDs Are Valuable Exercise Tools

Since the days Jane Fonda and her group of leotard-sporting, leg-warmer-wearing exercisers on VHS-that’s Video Home System for those of you under the age 25-exercisers have loved the convenience of working out at home. VHS has now long gone the way of the dinosaur, but home fitness fanaticism is still alive and well. Home fitness DVDs are a viable option for those who don’t have a gym membership. Thanks to a plethora of home DVDs, tightening up your troublesome spots has never been easier.

Availability

The average insomniac can most likely rattle off the names of the popular home fitness DVD programs seen cluttering the airwaves in late-night infomercials. These programs make claims of 60 to 90-day body transformations if you follow them diligently. But for those not so easily sucked into the vortex of late-night infomercials you have the option of purchasing from the local department store or through online DVD companies. The bonus of purchasing online is the customer reviews telling you whether or not a DVD is worth your money.

Time and Effort

The massive buzz surrounding home fitness program-craze has produced its share of bandwagon jumpers. But before you ditch your gym membership you should know that home fitness DVDs require the same effort and consistency as going to the gym; you can’t get results if you don’t do the workouts. As with any exercise plan you have to be committed to pushing the “Play” button on your DVD player with consistency. Of course no workout program can outdo a bad diet no matter how diligent you are, so make sure you consider your eating habits too.

Pros of Fitness DVDs

Since fitness DVDs come pre-programmed with the exercises there is no guesswork involved. This is beneficial to individuals who don’t have experience with creating workout plans. These workout plans are mostly led by energetic fitness experts who guide and encourage you to workout with intensity and “feel the burn”. Exercisers can feel confident that these programs were designed to give them great results if they put the consistency and effort.

The stale idea that getting into shape requires a gym membership is a gross misconception for some people. Exercise may be beneficial no matter where you do it. Your body doesn’t care whether you are at home or in a gym surrounded by a bunch of people. Working out at home can be just as effective as working out at the gym- and without the collective smell of other people’s sweat around you.

If you like variety there are home workouts available for people from all walks of life. For seniors, expectant moms, children, fitness buffs – whatever your fitness goals are, there are home workouts out there to suit your tastes.

Cons of Fitness DVDs

One caveat that comes with this method of working out is the boredom factor. Popping the same old DVD in everyday may offer you convenience now but overtime may cause your body to plateau. If you are no longer seeing results and feel like the workout is too easy it’s definitely time to switch it up. So if you are inclined to go the home workout route, make sure you vary your collection of DVDs and change it up every six weeks or so to keep things fresh.

Determining Exercise Intensity

If you are new to exercise and are looking to begin a new workout program, you may be wondering what intensity level is appropriate for your goals and your fitness level. Many people aren’t sure what intensity levels are defined by and avoid exercises labeled as vigorous intensity due to the fear of injury or lack of ability. As a personal trainer and exercise physiologist, it is my job to help explain these terms and concepts in a more understandable way. In this article, I will break down, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity, so that you, as a physically activity individual, are more educated and comfortable with what it is you are doing in your day to day exercises. It is recommended that a combination of moderate and vigorous exercise be done by most healthy adults, while light to moderate exercises, be performed by deconditioned persons. Intensity is individually based, meaning your intensity level is based on your physical abilities and not generalized by the abilities of others. Ideally, you would want a professional in the field to determine your intensity levels based on a guided fitness test, but I will provide you with information that will allow you to get an estimate without such resources. To do so we will use what is known as the target HR reserve method. This method begins with the HR reserve, which is defined as the difference in your resting heart rate and your maximal HR. Your HR reserve is then multiplied by the appropriate intensity percentage you are targeting, then your resting HR is added back to get your target HR reserve. Below I have demonstrated the method for moderate intensity exercise for myself.

1) To find your estimated HR max, subtract your age from 220.

220-22= 198 bpm. My estimated HR max is 198 beats per minute.

2) To find your resting heart rate, use a radial pulse or HR monitor. My resting HR is 60 beats per minute. I will now subtract my resting HR from my estimated heart rate max to determine my heart rate reserve.

198 – 60 =138 beats per minute.

3) Now I must use the heart rate reserve (HRR) and multiply it by the percentage equivalent to the intensity you are aiming to reach.

a. Light Intensity <50% HRR

b. Moderate Intensity 50-70% HRR

c. Vigorous Intensity 70%-85% HRR

In this case, I would like to exercise at moderate intensity. Therefore, I will multiply my HRR by 50% to get my lowest HR value and then by 70% to get my highest value to remain within that range for moderate intensity.

138 beats per minute X.50 = 69 beats per minute.

138 beats per minute X.70 = 96.6 beats per minute.

4) The last step in this process to get your final range of target HR reserve is to add your resting HR back to the HRR percentage. This allows the equation to consider your cardio endurance level at rest and adjusts accordingly. Below, I have demonstrated how to do so and have found my target HRR range for moderate intensity exercise.

69 beats per minute + 60 beats per minute = 129 beats per minute

96.6 beats per minute + 60 beats per minute = 156.6 beats per minute.

Target HR Range for Moderate Intensity = 129 bpm – 156.6 bpm.

Benefits of Light Intensity Exercise

Light intensity exercise is very beneficial to older adults. It allows them to remain physically active when there may be physical limitations or health concerns preventing moderate or vigorous activity. Light intensity is considered anything below 50% of the target heart rate reserve and provides many health benefits, especially to deconditioned persons. An Oregon State University study, published in the American Journal of Health Promotion, showed a significant increase in health for elderly persons, who participated in light physical activity such as walking. These individuals were less likely to develop chronic illness and had lower body mass index measurements.

Benefits of Moderate Intensity Exercise

Moderate intensity exercise is the most beneficial form of exercise. It yields an enormous amount of health benefits ranging from lower blood pressure, improved cholesterol, weight management, cancer prevention, and much more. Moderate intensity is recommended for all adults unless restricted by a doctor. Moderate intensity is anything between 50%-70% of the target HR reserve and is attainable by doing many activities, such as brisk walking, leisurely cycling, aqua aerobics, and dancing. There is a wide range of ways in which you can be physically active and yield the benefits of moderate intensity, but it begins with you taking that first step.

Benefits of Vigorous Intensity Exercise

Vigorous-intensity exercise is recommended for adults who are habitually physically active and with at least an average physical fitness level. Vigorous intensity is not power lifting or sprinting at Olympic pace. Activities of vigorous intensity include jogging, rowing, elliptical, fast dancing, and aerobics. The target HR reserve percentage is anything between 70%-85%. It is recommended that if you have a history of health-related issues or of middle age you get clearance from your doctor before performing vigorous activity. Vigorous intensity has similar benefits as moderate intensity but also comes with an increase in injury risk. It is recommended that a combination of both moderate and vigorous intensity be attained by the average adult to achieve maximum benefits from exercise.

What Now?

In conclusion, it should be known that intensity levels are of importance but they are not as intimidating as they sound. It is recommended by ACSM that a healthy adult get 30 – 60 minutes of moderate exercise or 20 – 60 minutes of vigorous exercise, or a combination of both, each day for ≥3 to 5 days per week. It is also recommended that if you only participate in moderate intensity, you do this 5 ≥ days a week and if you only participate in vigorous intensity, 3 ≥ days a week. Ask your doctor if you have any concerns about your current fitness level and your ability to perform vigorous intensity exercise. I hope you can take when was mentioned above and use it as a resource on your journey for optimal wellness.

How Genetics Play Into Tooth Decay

Those who are diligent about their oral health, making sure they brush twice daily and floss at least once per day, often see the fruits of their labor reflecting in their healthy, cavity-free teeth. Even so, despite such diligence, there are those who are more susceptible to cavities no matter how much they brush or floss.

However, the fault may not lie with the individuals themselves-it could very well be the result of their genes. As stated in two papers by dental researchers hailing from University of Pittsburgh, specific genetic variations might be the root of both tooth decay as well as severe periodontitis.

According to senior author Alexandre Vieira, who is also an assistant oral biology professor at the University of Pittsburgh, one’s cavity rate can be affected by polymorphisms (individual variations) in once specific gene-beta defensin 1. Also called DEFB1, this gene is known to play a primary role in immediate immune responses against invasive germs.

Dr. Vieira stated in the initial paper, “We were able to use data gathered from our dental registry and the DNA Repository – the only one of its kind in the world – to see if certain polymorphisms were associated with the development of caries [cavities].”

“This could help us find new ways to treat people who are particularly susceptible to tooth decay, a problem that afflicts millions of Americans,” Dr. Vieira continued. By examining almost 300 unidentified dental records as well as registry saliva samples, Vieira’s team assigned all cases both a DMFT score (established by number of adult teeth missing, filled, or decayed) and DMFS score (established by number of teeth decayed, missing, and with filled surfaces.)

Normally, people with fewer cavities have lower scores. Every saliva sample had one out of three variations, which were dubbed DEFB1 gene polymorphisms C-44G, G-20A, and G-52A. Vieira’s team reported individuals with G-20A variations had DMFS and DMFT scores five-times greater than those with other variants. Specifically, G-52A variations often resulted in the lowest DMFT scores.

The second paper saw Vieira’s team collaborate with Brazilian researchers to examine 389 saliva samples, which were for people among 55 families. These samples were used for finding genetic links with severe periodontitis, known for rapid deterioration of the gums as well as being more commonly seen in individuals of African descent, per the paper.

Vieira’s team reported discovering hints of a link between periodontitis and the FAM5C gene. As well, further experiments indicated raised amounts of FAM5C activation in spots of infected periodontal tissue when compared to normal tissue. “The FAM5C gene recently was implicated in cardiovascular disease, in which inflammation plays a role, just as in periodontitis,” Vieira said. “More research is needed to see if variation in the gene is associated with different activity profiles.”

To play it safe, though, if dental problems run rampant in your family, you need to make sure you have an oral hygiene program set up as soon as possible with your dentist. It may not seem like much, but that bi-annual visit can help prevent not only serious oral health problems, but your health in general.

Healthy Diet For Teeth & Gums

As in our entire body, the health of our teeth and gums depends on our food. Apart from vitamin D and calcium, other minerals and vitamins play an essential role in dental care.

It is known that food is determinant in our general health and, logically, influences the state of our oral hygiene.

Within this, there are nutrients whose participation in the formation and health of the teeth and gums is fundamental. Among them are calcium, phosphorus, fluorine, vitamin D, vitamin A and B vitamins.

These nutrients are essential for the formation and maintenance of body structures and teeth and gums:

1. Calcium

Calcium is a micronutrient that facilities the formation of bone and teeth in a human body. The optimal contribution of calcium is achieved with five or six glasses of milk, either whole or skimmed, five or six cups of yoghurt or about 150 grams of cheese in portions.

Foods rich in calcium are dark green vegetables, small fish, nuts, beans, cereals, etc.

2. Phosphorus

Phosphorus constitutes the structure of the bones and the teeth. Foods such as milk, eggs, fish, legumes, walnuts or courgettes are rich in phosphorus.

3. Vitamin D

Vitamin D maintains the health of bones and good dental hygiene and health since it stimulates the absorption of phosphorus and calcium, which are necessary to have healthy bones and teeth and to keep our nervous system in good condition. Vitamin D is found in blue fish, fish liver oil, margarine, eggs, milk and dairy products.

4. Vitamin C

Vitamin C plays a significant role in the development and maintenance of gum and dental health. It is found in fruits known as citrus (orange, lemon, mandarin, grapefruit, etc.), kiwi, fresh soybeans, tomatoes, green peppers, lettuce, potato, cauliflower, etc.

5. Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for good skin and mucosal conditions and is involved in the function of vision. Its deficit causes alteration of the structure of bones and teeth and drying of mucous membranes, which increases the predisposition to caries and infections.

It is found in foods of animal origin (in the form of retinol) such as cheese, bluefish, butter, liver, egg yolk, whole milk or enriched. Foods of plant origin (in the form of beta-carotene) such as Brussels sprouts, apricot, carrot, spinach, mango, peach, tomato, melon, medlars, etc.

6. Niacin

It appears to play an essential role in the prevention of periodontitis and other teeth problems. Its administration improves glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) and atrophic tongue. Niacin is found in the liver, lean meats, cereals, legumes and brewer’s yeast.

7. Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 Improves glossitis. The food sources are meats, viscera, eggs, fish and dairy products. This vitamin is not present in foods of plant origin, so it lacks in strict vegetarian regimes.

What Are The Hidden Benefits Of Herbal Medicines?

When you think about the herbal remedies, there are different questions that roam in your mind. Thus, the existence of herbal remedies is hard to gulp down for many. However, the history of herbal medicines has proved its effectiveness in many cases. Despite the criticism among the different parts of the world, many people still love the high impact of Ayurveda in treating their worsen scars over the time. There are several common drugs derived from plant-based sources for treating the most common congenital diseases for their wide advantages. From the roots to the tips, different parts of a plant are used to reap the benefits.

The allopathic drugs are made with most chemicals, which harm the body and react in some way. The synthetic chemicals and active plant and animal based ingredients can worsen the problems. However, the healing power of Ayurveda has numerous of benefits with hardly posses any side effects on the body or mind. Natural plant products have been used globally in treating various common and some of the most complex problems. They have several advantages to cure the problems effectively and have banished them from the roots.

Top Advantages Of Herbal Medicines To Cure The Common Problems:-

  • No Side Effects: Herbal remedies are handy and there are no side effects of using the organic matters directly from your garden. Alike the allopathic drugs, they don’t have bad impact on your skin, body and mind. They are modest as when compared to all the drugs in the pharmaceutical industries and are the best for those who are allergic to certain drugs.
  • Lower Cost: There are some best of treatments available in the science that cures the problems but not everyone can afford them for their expensive nature. The Ayurvedic medicines are relatively cheaper in the nature when compared to allopathic drugs. Moreover, they are easily available in the abundant quantities over the world.
  • Ease Of Availability Over The Prescribed Ones: Herbal products such as oils, teas, medicines, etc. extracted from the plants are healthier and are available easily in most stores as they are cost effective for both the suppliers and the consumers. Furthermore, you don’t need to get prescription from the doctor before its consumption.
  • Beneficial For Its Healing Properties: A wide assortment of herbs is used for treating the chronic and acute conditions and various ailments. From glowing skin to treating the worsen epidermis damage, herbs can do wonders for your skin to cure the problems effectively.