Diabetes mellitus is defined as a collection of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action. Diabetes was first recognized as an ailment connected with “sweet urine,” and extreme muscle loss in the olden world. High levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, therefore the term sweet urine.
Usually, blood glucose levels are strongly controlled by insulin, a hormone formed by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates, insulin is released from the pancreas to regularize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of inadequate production of or lack of reaction to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is an unrelieved medical situation, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
Type 1 Diabetes symptoms
Symptoms of diabetes can be associated in type one diabetes, which is usually diagnosed in children and teens, and type two diabetes, which most frequently occurs in adults. The symptoms of any of the two types are connected to high blood and urine glucose levels and include:
• frequent infections,
• vomiting, and
• Blurred vision.
• weight loss or gain,
• dry mouth,
• slow-healing wounds, cuts, or sores,
• itching skin, and
• increased susceptibility to infections
Type 2 Diabetes symptoms
• increased urine output
• excessive thirst
• weight loss
• skin problems
• slow healing wounds
• yeast infections and
• Tingling or numbness in the feet or toes
Diabetes symptoms in women
The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are related to elevated blood sugar levels, and loss of glucose in the urine. High amounts of glucose in the urine can cause increased urine output (frequent urination) and lead to dehydration.
The dehydration also causes increased thirst and water consumption.
A relative or absolute insulin deficiency eventually leads to weight loss.
The weight loss of diabetes occurs despite an increase in appetite.
Diabetes symptoms in men
Some untreated diabetes patients also complain of fatigue.
Nausea and vomiting can also occur in patients with untreated diabetes.
Frequent infections (such as infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas) are more likely to occur in people with untreated or poorly-controlled diabetes.
Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can lead to blurred vision.
Extremely elevated glucose levels can lead to lethargy and coma
What causes diabetes?
Insufficient production of insulin (either completely or relative to the body’s needs), production of faulty insulin (which is unusual), or the incapability of cells to use insulin correctly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia and diabetes.
This latter state affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. This is the chief dilemma in type 2 diabetes.
The complete lack of insulin, usually secondary to a critical procedure touching the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, is the main chaos in type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a stable reject of beta cells that adds to the procedure of elevated blood sugars. Basically, if somebody is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some quantity, boost production of insulin and conquer the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as dynamically, hyperglycemia develops.
Types of diabetes
There are two major types of diabetes, called type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes was also previously called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune assault by the body itself, and is rendered powerless of building insulin. Unusual antibodies have been found in the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes. Antibodies are proteins in the blood that are component of the body’s immune structure. The patient with type 1 diabetes must rely on insulin medication for endurance.
Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes
All types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime; however, thousands of people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication.